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Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS war ein britischer theoretischer Physiker und Astrophysiker. Von 19war er Inhaber des renommierten Lucasischen Lehrstuhls für Mathematik an der Universität Cambridge. Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS (* 8. Januar in Oxford, England; † Robert Hawking, der Vater von Frank, und dessen Frau konnten Frank die sich auf die Beziehung zu seiner damaligen Frau Jane Hawking konzentriert. Jane Hawking (* März als Beryl Jane Wilde) ist eine britische Romanistin. Sie war in erster Ehe mit dem Physiker Stephen Hawking verheiratet und. Schon die Autobiografie von Jane Hawking, der ersten Ehefrau des Physikers, auf der der Film basiert, hat Hawkings kompliziertes Liebesleben. Frau Hawking, am März verstarb Ihr Vater Stephen, nun erscheint sein letztes Buch: "Kurze Antworten auf große Fragen". Es liest sich wie.
Schon die Autobiografie von Jane Hawking, der ersten Ehefrau des Physikers, auf der der Film basiert, hat Hawkings kompliziertes Liebesleben. Stephen Hawking wurde 76 Jahre alt. Der Ausnahme-Physiker litt an der unheilbaren Krankheit ALS - und hatte ein bewegtes Leben. Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS war ein britischer theoretischer Physiker und Astrophysiker. Von 19war er Inhaber des renommierten Lucasischen Lehrstuhls für Mathematik an der Universität Cambridge.
Hawking continued his writings for a popular audience, publishing The Universe in a Nutshell in ,  and A Briefer History of Time , which he wrote in with Leonard Mlodinow to update his earlier works with the aim of making them accessible to a wider audience, and God Created the Integers , which appeared in In doing so, the theory suggests a possible resolution of the fine-tuning question.
Hawking continued to travel widely, including trips to Chile, Easter Island , South Africa, Spain to receive the Fonseca Prize in ,   Canada,  and numerous trips to the United States.
By , consensus among physicists was growing that Hawking was wrong about the loss of information in a black hole.
As part of another longstanding scientific dispute, Hawking had emphatically argued, and bet, that the Higgs boson would never be found.
Hawking and Higgs engaged in a heated and public debate over the matter in and again in , with Higgs criticising Hawking's work and complaining that Hawking's "celebrity status gives him instant credibility that others do not have.
Hawking quickly conceded that he had lost his bet   and said that Higgs should win the Nobel Prize for Physics ,  which he did in In , Hawking and his daughter Lucy published George's Secret Key to the Universe , a children's book designed to explain theoretical physics in an accessible fashion and featuring characters similar to those in the Hawking family.
Several buildings have been named after him, including the Stephen W. During his career, Hawking supervised 39 successful PhD students. On 28 June , as a tongue-in-cheek test of his conjecture that travel into the past is effectively impossible, Hawking held a party open to all, complete with hors d'oeuvres and iced champagne, but publicised the party only after it was over so that only time-travellers would know to attend; as expected, nobody showed up to the party.
On 20 July , Hawking helped launch Breakthrough Initiatives , an effort to search for extraterrestrial life. In August , Hawking said that not all information is lost when something enters a black hole and there might be a possibility to retrieve information from a black hole according to his theory.
Hawking's final paper — A smooth exit from eternal inflation? Hawking met his future wife, Jane Wilde , at a party in The following year, Hawking was diagnosed with motor neuron disease.
In October , the couple became engaged to marry, aware of the potential challenges that lay ahead due to Hawking's shortened life expectancy and physical limitations.
During their first years of marriage, Jane lived in London during the week as she completed her degree at Westfield College.
They travelled to the United States several times for conferences and physics-related visits. The couple had three children: Robert, born May ,   Lucy , born November ,  and Timothy, born April Hawking accepted, and Bernard Carr travelled with them as the first of many students who fulfilled this role.
Hawking returned to Cambridge in to a new home and a new job, as reader. Don Page , with whom Hawking had begun a close friendship at Caltech, arrived to work as the live-in graduate student assistant.
With Page's help and that of a secretary, Jane's responsibilities were reduced so she could return to her doctoral thesis and her new interest in singing.
Hellyer Jones became close to the Hawking family, and by the mids, he and Jane had developed romantic feelings for each other.
By the s, Hawking's marriage had been strained for many years. Jane felt overwhelmed by the intrusion into their family life of the required nurses and assistants.
In the late s, Hawking grew close to one of his nurses, Elaine Mason, to the dismay of some colleagues, caregivers, and family members, who were disturbed by her strength of personality and protectiveness.
In , Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars , describing her marriage to Hawking and its breakdown. Its revelations caused a sensation in the media but, as was his usual practice regarding his personal life, Hawking made no public comment except to say that he did not read biographies about himself.
In , Hawking and Mason quietly divorced,   and Hawking resumed closer relationships with Jane, his children, and his grandchildren.
Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neuron disease MND; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , or Lou Gehrig 's disease , a fatal neurodegenerative disease that results in the death of motor neurones in the brain and spinal cord, which gradually paralysed him over decades.
Hawking had experienced increasing clumsiness during his final year at Oxford, including a fall on some stairs and difficulties when rowing.
At the time, doctors gave him a life expectancy of two years. In the late s, Hawking's physical abilities declined: he began to use crutches and could no longer give lectures regularly.
He preferred to be regarded as "a scientist first, popular science writer second, and, in all the ways that matter, a normal human being with the same desires, drives, dreams, and ambitions as the next person.
I've called it both at one time or another. When Hawking first began using a wheelchair in the late s he was using standard motorised models.
Hawking used a variety of different chairs from that time, including a DragonMobility Dragon elevating powerchair from , as shown in the April photo of Hawking attending NASA's 50th anniversary;  a Permobil C from ; and then a Permobil F3 from Hawking's speech deteriorated, and by the late s he could be understood by only his family and closest friends.
To communicate with others, someone who knew him well would interpret his speech into intelligible speech. During a visit to CERN on the border of France and Switzerland in mid, Hawking contracted pneumonia , which in his condition was life-threatening; he was so ill that Jane was asked if life support should be terminated.
She refused, but the consequence was a tracheotomy , which required round-the-clock nursing care and the removal of what remained of his speech.
The cost of the care was funded by an American foundation. One of those employed was Elaine Mason, who was to become Hawking's second wife.
For his communication, Hawking initially raised his eyebrows to choose letters on a spelling card ,  but in he received a computer program called the "Equalizer" from Walter Woltosz, CEO of Words Plus, who had developed an earlier version of the software to help his mother-in-law, who also suffered from ALS and had lost her ability to speak and write.
Elaine Mason's husband, David, a computer engineer, adapted a small computer and attached it to his wheelchair. Released from the need to use somebody to interpret his speech, Hawking commented that "I can communicate better now than before I lost my voice.
Hawking gradually lost the use of his hand, and in he began to control his communication device with movements of his cheek muscles,    with a rate of about one word per minute.
After several prototypes that did not perform as planned, they settled on an adaptive word predictor made by the London-based startup SwiftKey , which used a system similar to his original technology.
Hawking had an easier time adapting to the new system, which was further developed after inputting large amounts of Hawking's papers and other written materials and uses predictive software similar to other smartphone keyboards.
By , he could no longer drive his wheelchair independently, but the same people who created his new typing mechanics were working on a method to drive his chair using movements made by his chin.
This proved difficult, since Hawking could not move his neck, and trials showed that while he could indeed drive the chair, the movement was sporadic and jumpy.
Starting in the s, Hawking accepted the mantle of role model for disabled people, lecturing and participating in fundraising activities.
In August , Hawking narrated the "Enlightenment" segment of the Summer Paralympics opening ceremony in London.
As he had pneumonia in , he was advised not to have ice poured over him, but his children volunteered to accept the challenge on his behalf.
In late , Hawking revealed in a BBC interview that one of his greatest unfulfilled desires was to travel to space;  on hearing this, Sir Richard Branson offered a free flight into space with Virgin Galactic , which Hawking immediately accepted.
Besides personal ambition, he was motivated by the desire to increase public interest in spaceflight and to show the potential of people with disabilities.
Hawking died at his home in Cambridge , England, on 14 March , at the age of Inscribed on his memorial stone are the words "Here lies what was mortal of Stephen Hawking —" and his most famed equation.
Hawking's final broadcast interview, about the detection of gravitational waves resulting from the collision of two neutron stars , occurred in October In March , it was announced that the Royal Mint issued a commemorative 50 pence coin in honour of Hawking.
In , Hawking posed an open question on the Internet: "In a world that is in chaos politically, socially and environmentally, how can the human race sustain another years?
That is why I asked the question, to get people to think about it, and to be aware of the dangers we now face.
Hawking expressed concern that life on Earth is at risk from a sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus , global warming , or other dangers humans have not yet thought of.
Hawking stated that, given the vastness of the universe, aliens likely exist, but that contact with them should be avoided.
In he said, "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans.
Hawking warned that superintelligent artificial intelligence could be pivotal in steering humanity's fate, stating that "the potential benefits are huge Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history.
It might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. Hawking was concerned about the future emergence of a race of "superhumans" that would be able to design their own evolution  and, as well, argued that computer viruses in today's world should be considered a new form of life, stating that "maybe it says something about human nature, that the only form of life we have created so far is purely destructive.
Talk about creating life in our own image. At Google's Zeitgeist Conference in , Hawking said that "philosophy is dead".
He believed that philosophers "have not kept up with modern developments in science" and that scientists "have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge".
He said that philosophical problems can be answered by science, particularly new scientific theories which "lead us to a new and very different picture of the universe and our place in it".
Hawking was an atheist   and believed that "the universe is governed by the laws of science". He stated: "There is a fundamental difference between religion, which is based on authority, [and] science, which is based on observation and reason.
Science will win because it works. We are each free to believe what we want and it is my view that the simplest explanation is there is no God.
No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realisation. There is probably no heaven, and no afterlife either.
We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that, I am extremely grateful.
Hawking's association with atheism and freethinking was in evidence from his university years onwards, when he had been a member of Oxford University's humanist group.
He was later scheduled to appear as the keynote speaker at a Humanists UK conference. Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe.
But now science offers a more convincing explanation. What I meant by 'we would know the mind of God' is, we would know everything that God would know, if there were a God, which there isn't.
I'm an atheist. Hawking was a longstanding Labour Party supporter. Hawking was greatly concerned over health care, and maintained that without the UK National Health Service , he could not have survived into his 70s.
I believe in universal health care. And I am not afraid to say so. Hawking feared privatisation. He stated, "The more profit is extracted from the system, the more private monopolies grow and the more expensive healthcare becomes.
The NHS must be preserved from commercial interests and protected from those who want to privatise it. But he was also critical of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn , expressing scepticism over whether the party could win a general election under him.
Hawking feared Donald Trump 's policies on global warming could endanger the planet and make global warming irreversible. He said, "Climate change is one of the great dangers we face, and it's one we can prevent if we act now.
By denying the evidence for climate change, and pulling out of the Paris Agreement , Donald Trump will cause avoidable environmental damage to our beautiful planet, endangering the natural world, for us and our children.
In , Hawking, Arthur C. They discussed the Big Bang theory , God and the possibility of extraterrestrial life. At the release party for the home video version of the A Brief History of Time , Leonard Nimoy , who had played Spock on Star Trek , learned that Hawking was interested in appearing on the show.
Nimoy made the necessary contact, and Hawking played a holographic simulation of himself in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in Hawking allowed the use of his copyrighted voice   in the biographical film The Theory of Everything , in which he was portrayed by Eddie Redmayne in an Academy Award-winning role.
Hawking received numerous awards and honours. Hawking has made major contributions to the field of general relativity.
These derive from a deep understanding of what is relevant to physics and astronomy, and especially from a mastery of wholly new mathematical techniques.
Following the pioneering work of Penrose he established, partly alone and partly in collaboration with Penrose, a series of successively stronger theorems establishing the fundamental result that all realistic cosmological models must possess singularities.
Using similar techniques, Hawking has proved the basic theorems on the laws governing black holes: that stationary solutions of Einstein's equations with smooth event horizons must necessarily be axisymmetric; and that in the evolution and interaction of black holes, the total surface area of the event horizons must increase.
In collaboration with G. Ellis, Hawking is the author of an impressive and original treatise on "Space-time in the Large".
The citation continues, "Other important work by Hawking relates to the interpretation of cosmological observations and to the design of gravitational wave detectors.
At the Pride of Britain Awards , Hawking received the lifetime achievement award "for his contribution to science and British culture".
Hawking was a member of the Advisory Board of the Starmus Festival , and had a major role in acknowledging and promoting science communication.
The Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication is an annual award initiated in to honour members of the arts community for contributions that help build awareness of science.
The first recipients of the medals, which were awarded at the festival, were chosen by Hawking himself.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author.
Oxford , England, United Kingdom. Cambridge , England, United Kingdom. Jane Wilde m. Elaine Mason m. General relativity Quantum gravity.
Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.
Further information: Stephen Hawking in popular culture. This relationship between concepts from the disparate fields of general relativity , quantum mechanics and thermodynamics implies the existence of deep connections between them and may presage their unification.
It is inscribed on Hawking's memorial stone. London: Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 21 March Vacuum energy and general relativity PhD thesis.
University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 5 February Pair creation of black holes in cosmology PhD thesis.
Primordial black holes PhD thesis. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Space-time wormholes PhD thesis. Some aspects of gravitational radiation and gravitational collapse PhD thesis.
The origin of inflation PhD thesis. Time and quantum cosmology PhD thesis. Accretion into and emission from black holes PhD thesis. California Institute of Technology.
Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 6 February Black holes and quantum mechanics PhD thesis. Problems in M theory. Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 1 May Cosmological models and the inflationary universe PhD thesis.
Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 23 June Stephen Hawking Official Website. The Independent.
Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 15 September Scientific American. Retrieved 23 December Q: How frequent are these cases of very slow-progressing forms of ALS?
A: I would say probably less than a few percent. Skeptical Inquirer. Volume 25, No. Department of Physics, Washington University in St.
Retrieved 17 December United Press International. Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 21 September Stephen William".
Who's Who online Oxford University Press ed. Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 20 March The Herald. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 14 March Archived from the original on 22 March Archived from the original on 20 March Radio Times.
Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 6 January The Guardian. Retrieved 5 March Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 27 November Properties of Expanding Universes PhD thesis.
The advantage of the h - index is that it combines productivity i. Stephen Hawking is not a fraud. Ronald L.
Mallett, on the other hand is a fraud. Either somebody is a scientist or he is not. It is one of the most famous universities on this planet, and believe me, they know how to choose their professors.
And he brought the essence of And he brought the essence of cosmology to millions of ordinary people with his popular scientific books.
He worked together with people like Sir Roger Penrose, one of the most famous theoretical physicians of our time.
And everybody in the scientific community listened to Stephen Hawking, even if they had different opinions or theories. He was undenieably one of the greatest scientists of our time and his death is a great loss to the scientific community.
In fact, I think this sort of questions tell more about the person asking it than the answers tell of the man in the question.
So I suggest you go read an actual book by or of Hawking and then come to the only real and true conclusion that Hawking is not only not a fraudster, but one of the deepest minds humankind has ever produced.
He just came up with these ideas and theories and a few really crackpot things that have never been proved.
He spent a lot of effort theorising about Black Holes. No one has ever seen one! Some one said a scientist had made a Black Hole in a laboratory, unfortunately he disappeared before he could be interviewed.
Stephen Hawking was a very real and very remarkable person with an amazing mind unfortunately trapped in a body ravaged by ALS or Amyotrophic Lateral Schlerosis.
Also called Lou Gehrigs Disease. His contributions to science and physics specifically are legendary and easily researched.
He was definitively a real scientist and a real mathematician. While his academic achievements are sometimes overrated I think his disease and how he overcame it is the main source of his popularity he still was a very smart man and a remarkable scientist.
No most certainly not. Was he a businessperson, yes. He would sell books and often change his mind to sell other books.
But he was the type of genius seen once a lifetime. The obvious answer is that it helps sell books.
A Brief History of a First Wife. Cytat: Jane took much of her dramatic hope at the time from her faith, and still sees something of the irony in the fact that her Christianity gave her the strength to support her husband, the most profound atheist.
Reuters, Cytat: I believe the universe is governed by the laws of science. ABC, Cytat: What could define God [is thinking of God] as the embodiment of the laws of nature.
However, this is not what most people would think of that God. When you look at the vast size of the universe and how insignificant an accidental human life is in it, that seems most impossible.
Cytat: Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing, […] Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist.
SOS Children. American Physical Society. The Royal Society. University of Santiago de Compostela. University of Cambridge, Peruzzi red.
Masters of Science Fiction. Channel 4. Wikimedia Commons Wikicytaty. Stephen Hawking. Alma Mater.
Uniwersytet Oksfordzki Uniwersytet w Cambridge. Multimedia w Wikimedia Commons. Cytaty w Wikicytatach. Strona internetowa.
Fisher , Leo P. Kadanoff , Kenneth G. Hahn , Peter B. Libchaber Herbert Friedman , Bruno B.
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