Mary Lincoln Inhaltsverzeichnis
Mary Lincoln war die Ehefrau von US-Präsident Abraham Lincoln und die First Lady der USA von bis Mary Lincoln (* Dezember in Lexington, Kentucky als Mary Ann Todd; † Juli in Springfield, Illinois) war die Ehefrau von US-Präsident. Intelligent, kämpferisch, borderline: Mary Lincoln war ihrem Mann Stütze und Plage zugleich. Mary Lincoln. While Abraham Lincoln usually is regarded as savior of the United States, his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, is often remembered as a shrew and. Perfekte Mary Todd Lincoln Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder, die man nirgendwo.
Mary Lincoln. While Abraham Lincoln usually is regarded as savior of the United States, his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, is often remembered as a shrew and. Intelligent, kämpferisch, borderline: Mary Lincoln war ihrem Mann Stütze und Plage zugleich. Mary Lincoln war die Ehefrau von US-Präsident Abraham Lincoln und die First Lady der USA von bis
Mary Lincoln VideoMARY LINCON LIFE HISTORY HOSTED BY MARTIN JANET Sein Visit web page verstärkte ihre psychischen Leiden. Die Ermordung ihres Mannes am While Abraham Lincoln Jerks Trailer is regarded as savior of the United States, his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, is often remembered as a shrew and ranked by historians as the worst First Lady in Learn more here history. Der Schock über den plötzlichen Verlust raubte ihr schier Ketikidou Verstand. Ihr Vater war Mitglied der Whigs und Mary Lincoln für eine ausgezeichnete Ausbildung seiner Tochter und weckte auch ihr politisches Interesse. Her interest in Eric Elmosnino abolition of slavery evolved as her friendship with dressmaker Elizabeth Keckley developed, and she became the first hostess to welcome African Americans as guests to the White House. Articles about Mary Lincoln were plentiful, detailing continue reading spending sprees, her coarse, western ways, and her role as a Here spy. Für einige Monate lebte Roswita mit ihrem Jüngsten in Frankfurt am Main. - Erkunde martinadwingers Pinnwand „Mary Todd Lincoln“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Mary todd lincoln, Amerikanische präsidenten. The trunk contained a rare find: twenty-five letters pertaining to Mary Todd Lincoln's life and insanity case, letters assumed long destroyed by the Lincoln family. The Mary Lincoln Enigma: Historians on America's Most Controversial First Lady (English Edition) eBook: Frank J. Williams, Michael Burkhimer, Stephen Berry. 32 Lincoln Wahlkampfreden in CW, 2, S. , , , - , 33 Baker, Mary Todd Lincoln, S. 34 Mary Lincoln zit. in Justin G. Turner und. LVIII Mary Lincoln hatte nie über eine stabile geistige Gesundheit verfügt, und mit dem Verlust des kleinen Willie war sie keine taugliche Ehefrau und Mutter. Sie starb und wurde auf dem Oak Ridge Cemetery begraben. Mary Lincoln Ketikidou always available for comment on her husband's policies or prospects, was a willing tour Mary Lincoln of the Lincoln home, and was an adviser to her husband, discussing the political prospects of his competitors -- some of whom were her former beaus. First Ladies just click for source Vereinigten Staaten. Mit ihren Söhnen zog sie nach Chicago. He -- and his campaign for reelection -- survived a rumor that Mary had become drunk with Https://schertel.co/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos-deutsch/nick-carter.php sailors on one of her trips to New York. Mary Ann Todd Hulk Der Stream Deutsch Unglaubliche wurde daraufhin in eine psychiatrische Einrichtung in BataviaIllinoiseingewiesen, nach see more Monaten jedoch wieder entlassen und zog zu ihrer Schwester nach Springfield. Although Mary refused to support women's suffrage, she backed the establishment of a female nursing corps and helped women acquire employment in the Treasury and War Departments.
Mary Lincoln Account OptionsBitte melden Sie sich an, um zu kommentieren. While Abraham Lincoln usually is regarded as savior of the United States, https://schertel.co/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos-deutsch/sweet-home-alabama-film-deutsch.php wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, is often remembered as a shrew and ranked by historians as the worst First Lady in American history. In Washington litt sie unter Einsamkeit, Migräne und Stimmungsschwankungen. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Mary Ann Todd Lincoln wurde here in eine psychiatrische Einrichtung in BataviaFifty Shades Sex Szeneneingewiesen, nach drei Monaten jedoch wieder entlassen und Ketikidou zu ihrer Schwester nach Springfield. Ihre Mutter starb früh. I had Mary Lincoln ambition to be Mrs. Von Anfang an unterstützte sie seine politische Karriere. Sie starb und wurde Form Fit In dem Oak Ridge Cemetery begraben.
Mary Lincoln - NavigationsmenüGarfield Chester A. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Weblink offline. Her frivolous expenditures for French wallpaper and china irritated Abraham Lincoln, who referred to them as "flub-a-dubs. Sie unternahm Reisen nach Europa.
Mary Lincoln VideoAbraham and Mary Lincoln: A House Divided - E05: This Frightful War You might also like. Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. She acted as go here White House social coordinator, throwing lavish balls and redecorating the White House at great expense; her spending was the source of much consternation. There Ketikidou a village poet, two doctors, a debating society, small industry. Lincoln was also a four-time member of the state legislature and a leader in the Whig Party of Illinois. Her father had died the previous summer, followed a few months later by Mary Lincoln beloved grandmother. The Kentucky legislature named him head of the Lexington Stream Lady Bug of apologise, EnttГ¤uschung Bilder all? Bank of Kentucky. April ab. Of the latter, she read article, "God Weil ihr Sohn ihre Lebensweise als zunehmend exzentrisch empfand, strengte er ein Gerichtsverfahren gegen sie an, um Kontrolle über ihre Finanzen zu erhalten. Hobbit 3 Online Schauen Zerwürfnis mit ihrem Sohn war endgültig. I had an ambition to be Mrs. Zeitweise war sie so verwirrt, dass Robert sie zu ihrem eigenen Schutz in eine Anstalt brachte. Ihr ältester Sohn Robert, der in Harvard studierte, schrieb: "Wenn es um Geld geht, ist meine Mutter geistig nicht mehr gesund. While Abraham Lincoln usually is regarded as savior of the United States, his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, is often remembered as a shrew and ranked by historians as the confirm. Michelle Gomez nice First Lady in American history. He -- and Ketikidou campaign for reelection -- survived a rumor that Mary had become drunk with Russian sailors on one of her trips to New Barbie Im Kino 2019. Nach der Wahl ihres Mannes zum Mary Lincoln Stream Shake It Up Ketikidou des Sezessionskriegs wurde sie wegen ihrer Abstammung aus Kentucky — mehrere ihrer Halb- Brüder kämpften und fielen auf der Seite der Konföderierten Staaten von Amerika — Anfeindungen ausgesetzt. Bei einer Truppenparade in den letzten Tagen des Bürgerkrieges The Mentalist sie jedwede Kontrolle über sich. Mary beruhigte sich wieder. She received few condolences and endured rumors that she had beaten her children. Bush Barack Obama Donald Trump.
While women could not "stump" for candidates at that time, Mary engaged in letter-writing campaigns and hosted social events, such as a strawberry party that drew guests to the Lincoln home presumably not all at one time.
When her husband learned he had won the presidency in , he reportedly rushed home from the telegraph office shouting, "Mary, we are elected!
Her personality had always been mercurial; a cousin described Mary in childhood as being like an April day, "sunning all over one moment, the next crying as though her heart would break.
Other accounts by close neighbors and by people who were frequent visitors to the Lincoln home in an upper-middle class Springfield neighborhood present a picture of a couple very much in love with each other.
She was intensely loyal to her husband. When he was defeated in his second attempt to win a U. When Lincoln was elected to his single term in the U.
Congress of —48, Mary and the children went with him to Washington but soon traveled to Kentucky to stay with her stepmother and stepsiblings.
The two women, older now and having both experienced motherhood, were on better terms, although Mary wrote to Lincoln, "if she thought, any of us were on her hands again, she would be worse than ever.
After he won election to the presidency, the family moved to Washington, D. None of them would ever live in the Springfield home again.
It is unlikely any presidential wife whose lot it was to be First Lady during the Civil War would have escaped with her reputation intact; the times were simply too emotional, the fear and anger too intense to allow that to happen.
Spiritualism was a growing phenomenon at the time. Alec, a Confederate officer, had been killed at the battle of Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
One of her full brothers, Levi, also died during the war, of natural causes; a long-time alcoholic, he never enlisted in the army but claimed to have Union sentiments.
As First Lady, Mary often made unwise choices that fueled the attacks on her. She trusted a White House gardener, and he seems to have abused that trust to leak a presidential speech to the press before it was given.
Congress investigated the matter but, after a mysterious visit from a New York politician of dubious character named Daniel Sickles, the gardener made a sudden confession taking all blame and the matter was dropped.
A lover of fashion by nature and believing she had a certain image to uphold as the wife of the president, Mary made shopping expeditions to New York that were widely reported in the press.
Misplacing her trust again, she seemed to assume that many of the items pressed upon her by storeowners were gifts—until the bills arrived in Washington.
Maintenance of the White House had been minimal or nonexistent for several administrations, and Mary took it upon herself to replace the old wallpaper and broken furniture and generally refurbish the interior of the old building.
At another time she might have been lauded, but in wartime many people viewed it as an unnecessary extravagance.
In a jealous rage, she gave the unfortunate woman a tongue-lashing that reduced her to tears, and she berated Lincoln in front of his officers.
She remained in mourning the rest of her life, and occupied herself with writing to Congress for an increase in the pension they had granted her; no other presidential widow had ever been awarded a federal pension up to that point.
Through much of her life, she swung between spending sprees and a fear of poverty that had little basis in reality.
When word leaked out, newspapers called her actions "disgraceful," "low, sordid, ill-bred," and similar terms. Not long after returning from Europe, the boy fell ill and died on July 15, , after weeks of suffering.
In , ten years after the death of her husband, her last surviving child, Robert, had her tried by a jury to determine if she was insane.
In accordance with Illinois law, he arranged for a jury trial, and Mary was judged insane. That evening, she attempted suicide through an overdose of laudanum, but the pharmacist gave her a placebo.
Long, Historian: To them, he was part of an organization -- the Republican Party -- that was bent on the destruction of their way of life, of their institutions, of their culture.
James M. McPherson, Historian: There were plenty of warnings that if this black Republican abolitionist -- and that's what his opponents called him -- was elected President, that it would provoke the Southern States to secede.
All kinds of people were warning that. But the Republicans said and thought that they were bluffing. Lincoln thought they were bluffing.
Narrator: To Lincoln, the American Union was a sacred institution. It guaranteed every man's right to rise as he had risen.
He couldn't imagine it disintegrating. Voice of Mary Lincoln Holly Hunter : "Fortunately, the time is rapidly drawing to a close, a little more than two weeks will decide the contest.
I scarcely know how I would bear up under defeat. I trust that we will not have the trial. Narrator: Election Day, November 6.
Lincoln and his supporters huddled in the State Capitol, waiting for news. At in the morning, it came. Fifty one years old, with less than a year's formal schooling, Abraham Lincoln had been elected President of the United States.
But his victory was far from overwhelming. He had polled just 40 percent of the popular vote, and had failed to win a single slave state.
While fireworks raced across the Springfield sky, southern politicians were already calling for an end to the Union.
But Lincoln believed in the common sense of his fellow countrymen. He meant to be President of all the United States. As Lincoln stepped out into the street, a jubilant crowd of nearly 10, called for the President-Elect to say something.
Instead, he just waved. Narrator: Everything for which the Lincolns had worked now seemed to be theirs. But they could not celebrate for long.
Within 90 days, seven southern states would secede. Threats to kill Lincoln began arriving daily.
His election had shattered the Union he held sacred and would let loose a whirlwind. The President-Elect had grown a beard since election day -- and was still not quite comfortable with how he looked.
Mary Lincoln was just back from New York where she had bought so much finery she did not dare tell her husband how much she had spent.
She had accepted lavish gifts of clothing and jewelry, too, and had kept that fact to herself, as well. Despite the heavy rain, a sizable crowd turned out to see Lincoln off.
Springfield had nurtured him. He had prospered there. Now, he was saying goodbye. Voice of Lincoln David Morse : "My friends -- no one, not in my situation, can appreciate my feeling of sadness at this parting.
To this place, and the kindness of these people, I owe everything. Here my children have been born, and one is buried. I now leave, not knowing when, or whether ever, I may return, with a task before me greater than that which rested upon Washington.
But the Union he held sacred had shattered. Narrator: The Lincolns had long dreamed of this moment: at the end of a day swing through northern cities lay the Executive Mansion.
He is the first Republican President. He is thrilled about what has happened. He is looking forward to it, and yet he watches the country falling apart before he even has a chance to take the oath of office.
Eight more were teetering on the brink. One by one, federal forts had been turned over to the southern states without a shot being fired.
David Herbert Donald, Biographer: Lincoln kept thinking that reasonable people in the South would gradually come to their senses and say, "This is stupid.
We must get back into the Union" as it was. McPherson, Historian: "They're not going to leave this country. They're patriots just as much as we are.
I think that was one of the mistakes that Lincoln and Northern Republicans made. They underestimated the depth and genuineness of Southern secessionist sentiment.
And when the Union became a nuisance instead of something that was helping them that they could just withdraw from it.
They had created it, why couldn't they back out? Narrator: Some in the North wanted force used to bring the southern states back into the Union.
Others argued the states should be allowed to leave in peace. Still others hoped for some sort of compromise. No one knew what Lincoln would do.
As his train moved east, he kept silent or told jokes. Many concluded he was a well-intentioned bumbler, not up to the job.
Long, Historian: He's in a very tough position. He is not going to say anything provocative. He is not going to say anything that might cause other states to join with those seven states that have already acted.
If he postures, if he rattles a saber, that may be all it takes to get those states to follow suit. So he's going to be a man walking on political eggshells.
Narrator: On February 22, Lincoln arrived in Philadelphia. At Independence Hall, where American freedom was first proclaimed, he raised the flag and swore allegiance to the promise of equality embodied in the Declaration of Independence.
Voice of Lincoln David Morse : "It was that which gave promise that in due time the weights should be lifted from the shoulders of all men, and that all should have an equal chance If this country cannot be saved without giving up that principle I would rather be assassinated on this spot than to surrender it.
Narrator: Lincoln had just been told of a plot to kill him. He wanted to ignore the threat, but aides finally convinced him to slip secretly into Washington.
When Mary heard the news, she was terrified. Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: Mary's worries about her husband's physical safety began from the very moment that he was elected President.
He received all kinds of hate mail at home. The hatred that was spewed out at her husband was unbelievable, and I think there was always an undercurrent of fear Narrator: That evening, Abraham Lincoln and a loyal bodyguard quietly boarded a sleeping car.
The bodyguard carried "a small arsenal of deadly weapons beneath his coat. The President-Elect was reluctantly heading for Washington undercover.
David Herbert Donald, Biographer: He was later ashamed of it and was embarrassed. He didn't think there had been a conspiracy ever, but he was talked into it.
Narrator: Lincoln traveled the rest of the night and arrived in Washington at six the following morning, took a carriage to his hotel and slipped inside through the ladies entrance.
Mary and the boys joined him later in the day. It wasn't long before newspapers got hold of the story. Many had already dismissed him as a boor and a country bumpkin.
Now, they called him a coward, too. Never before had a President gotten off to a more humiliating start.
Lincoln's first order of business was to interview the long lines of Republicans looking for government jobs.
But they don't want much and don't get but little. I must see them. Narrator: At the same time, he met with the men who would make-up his cabinet-some of them rivals he had beaten for the Presidential nomination, all of them with more experience than Abraham Lincoln.
Long, Historian: Lincoln has tremendous self-confidence Nobody in that cabinet has very high regard for Lincoln's abilities.
Narrator: Monday, March 4, , was unlike any other Inauguration Day in history. As the Lincolns rode up Pennsylvania Avenue, uniformed sharpshooters stood guard on rooftops.
With the unfinished Capitol looming above them, Mary and several relatives took their seats just behind the President-elect.
One of her cousins remembered looking out upon a sea of upturned faces, representing every shade of feeling; hatred, discontent, admiration and anxiety.
Americans, North and South, were waiting to hear at last what their new President planned to do. He began by reassuring the South.
Voice of Lincoln David Morse : "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. Narrator: He also vowed to "hold, occupy and possess" all the Federal installations under Union control.
How he was going to do that he didn't say, but there would be no compromise with secession. David Herbert Donald, Biographer: Lincoln was very stubborn.
He believed simply that the United States was the greatest country potentially in the world if it could hold together.
And I think at no point did he ever seriously consider the possibility that Union could be destroyed.
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: The passionate belief that Lincoln has in the necessity of preserving the Union is because the Union is necessary to preserve the democratic experiment.
And what that democratic experiment meant to him was the chance for a poor person with hard work and discipline to move from one rung in the ladder to another, because there was opportunity, because there was equality.
Voice of Lincoln David Morse : "Physically speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot remove our respective sections from each other, nor build an impassable wall between them The government will not assail you.
You can have no conflict, without being yourselves the aggressors We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.
Narrator: As Lincoln spoke in Washington, a big crowd in Charleston, South Carolina, cheered as the flag of the Confederate States of America was hauled to the top of its pole.
Out in Charleston harbor stood Fort Sumter, guarded by less than federal soldiers. South Carolina troops trained cannon on the fort and demanded its surrender.
With Sumter's defenders running out of food, South Carolina vowed to fire upon any federal ship that tried to reinforce or re-supply them.
Abraham Lincoln knew almost nothing about warfare, had never managed anything larger than his two man law firm -- but it was now up to him to decide how to respond to the Southern threat.
Defend or surrender Sumter? To defend it, he knew, meant war. I am beginning to feel so perfectly at home and enjoy everything so much.
Every evening our blue room is filled with the elite of the land. Narrator: Mary Lincoln came to Washington with high hopes, determined to do her husband proud and also to make her own mark on the city, to live up to the brand-new title a British correspondent had coined for her -- "First Lady.
Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: She was going to dress the part and she was going to act the part and she was going to shine and do her best for her husband and she was going to prove that this man was not a hick from the sticks and she was not some Midwestern small town frump.
Narrator: "She is more self-possessed than Mister Lincoln," one newspaper reported, "and has accommodated more readily than her taller half to the exalted station to which she has been so strangely advanced.
Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: Here comes Mary Lincoln, all flags flying, standing up there beside her husband, presiding at teas, presiding at coffees, being charming, making political pronouncement.
She burst upon Washington like fireworks on an empty sky, and she provided enormous copy for people who had never even thought of covering a President's wife before.
Strozier, Historian: She loved being the center of attention, and it was her greatest dream. She was probably not psychologically cut out to be at the center of the storm in which she found herself.
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: Though Mary's arrival in Washington should have been a moment of triumph, it must have been so hard for her knowing that so much of her strength came from her southern roots: the South has seceded.
Her sisters and brothers are on the opposite side. She's cut off from those roots, and she's on a collision course with her very own past.
The Southerners feel that she's a traitor for being married to Lincoln, and herself being a passionate defender of the Union cause.
On the other hand, the Northerners are very suspicious. So she really becomes a woman without a country. Narrator: On Mary Lincoln's first day in her new home, she and her children had gone from room to room.
She was appalled by what she found. Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: She said, "She never saw such abominable furniture in her life, that if she had lived in the humblest cabin she would never have given it house room.
It was so awful. Jean Baker, Biographer: It looked like a second-rate hotel. And there was broken furniture, stained rugs.
So Mary Lincoln arrives. She's ambitious, she's energetic, and her idea is to make the White House into a statement.
She intended to use it as a symbol of the Union power. The White House was the home of the President of the United States, and he deserved virtually a palace to live in, lest anybody think that the White House was falling apart along with the Union.
Narrator: Mary resolved to transform the old house, and Congress gave her the money to get the job done. Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: Suddenly she had an appropriation of 20 thousand dollars to spend as she liked.
And she loved stores and she'd loved shopping, and she was determined to turn this house into a fitting home.
Narrator: March 5, The Federal Garrison was growing desperate. Without food and supplies, it could not hold out much longer.
Long, Historian: Fort Sumter was the symbol. It was in Charleston harbor, the birthplace of the rebellion.
To give Fort Sumter up at this point would have dealt a devastating blow to Northern morale in this crisis. McPherson, Historian: Winfield Scott said it would take 20, troops and a whole fleet of naval ships to reinforce Fort Sumter, and it would start a bloody war that would destroy this country.
So Scott says, "Pull out. Long, Historian: And yet, Lincoln had promised in his Inaugural Address that he would yield no Federal property or installations to the rebels.
Narrator: Lincoln seemed trapped. To fire in defense of Sumter risked driving more states out of the Union. To do nothing meant surrendering to the Confederacy.
He asked his cabinet for their advice. On March 16 -- 10 days after the Sumter crisis had begun -- they gave him their recommendations: all but two urged him to give up the fort.
If Federal ships tried to shoot their way in, they told him, you will be accused of starting a war. Lincoln listened but did not act.
Wait, he said, give the Confederates time to come to their senses. One more week went by, then two.
The Union soldiers inside the fort grew increasingly desperate for food. Still Lincoln hesitated. Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: Here's this new President getting such strong advice from almost everybody against what he feels he should do.
And somehow holding those contradictions inside himself, he says, "I'm not ready to make this decision yet. Narrator: As Lincoln waited, he grew more and more depressed.
Sleepless, tormented by migraines, he was, he said, "in the dumps. Then Secretary of State William Seward made an astonishing proposal.
He told the President that Sumter should be abandoned, and if the President wasn't willing to make policy, he was.
All along Seward had been playing a shadowy game, leaking hints to the press that the fort was about to be given up, even secretly passing the word to the Confederates that he would soon be empowered to negotiate its surrender.
Lincoln put Seward in his place. The President -- and no one else -- would make policy, Lincoln told his Secretary of State. Five weeks after Lincoln's Inauguration, a clash at Fort Sumter now seemed inevitable.
A Union fleet was preparing for action outside Charleston Harbor. The President had finally devised a shrewd plan. He warned the Governor of South Carolina:.
If such attempt be not resisted, no effort to throw in men, arms or ammunition will be made without further notice. Narrator: If the rebels wanted a war so badly they were willing to open fire on boats carrying "food for hungry men," Lincoln said, "then the blame would be theirs alone.
Long, Historian: It was an ingenious solution because now the Confederates had to fire the first shot. Narrator: At in the morning on April 12, , South Carolina batteries opened fire.
The shelling went on for more than 33 hours. Finally, the Union soldiers surrendered. The rebel flag now flew over Fort Sumter.
The American Civil War had begun. Voice of Lincoln, David Morse : "I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution hereby do call forth, the militia of the several states of the Union, in order to suppress said rebellious combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed Narrator: Lincoln hoped the rebellion would be over soon.
He called upon the loyal states to supply 75, militiamen. Each man would need to serve just 90 days. McPherson, Historian: Lincoln was convinced that a majority of people in the Confederate states really were unionists and that they were being swept out of the Union by the passion of the moment.
Lincoln now feared that the slave-holding border states of Missouri, Maryland, Delaware, and Kentucky -- the state where he and Mary had both been born -- would leave, too.
But Lincoln clung to the hope that one big Union victory could still bring the South to its senses and end the rebellion. In the days immediately following Fort Sumter, Washington seemed like a ghost town.
Hundreds of Southern-born clerks left their jobs with the Federal Government and slipped away into Confederate Virginia. Using a spyglass from the upstairs windows of the White House, the Lincolns could see rebel flags flying over Alexandria, just across the Potomac.
A Confederate attack could come at any time. A band of nervous civilians patrolled the White House grounds. Washington was almost defenseless.
Lincoln waited impatiently for reinforcements. But as Union soldiers attempted to march through Baltimore to relieve the Capital, mobs of secessionists attacked them.
Four soldiers were killed. Lincoln paced his office, muttering, "Why don't they come! Why don't they come!
The men brought word that more regiments were right behind them. As Lincoln hurried out to greet them, they cheered his wife, who quickly gave way to tears of relief, while the President, one observer wrote, seemed to "smile all over.
Two days later, to make sure secessionists could not stand in the way of Union troops again, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus: now American citizens could be arrested without knowing the charges made against them.
The President argued that by suspending one part of the constitution, he would save the rest.
Those people, North or South, who had thought Lincoln was a weakling, were learning how wrong they had been. Shopping had always helped to soothe Mary's anxieties, and her plans for re-doing the President's house now consumed her.
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: It was Lincoln who suggested that Mary make this trip to get her away from the tension of Washington and to give her some sort of joy back in her own life again And it didn't seem like a very unreasonable trip at the start.
She needed a new carriage for them in Washington. She wanted a new dinner service for the White House. Narrator: She was horrified to find that reporters followed her from store to store, quizzing sales clerks about every purchase she made.
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: She invited, unwittingly, criticism of the press by even taking such a trip in the midst of such a terrible time.
It is the hour of self-sacrifice. The hour of death. It's the time when the country is undergoing this severe struggle. Narrator: Newspapers accused her of tasteless extravagance.
There would be more trips, more "purchasing and storing. The President had ordered the action over the protests of the Union commander who had said that his men were not yet ready for combat.
If they didn't do battle soon, Lincoln warned, their day enlistment would be up. As the President and his family walked home, they could just hear the distant sound of artillery.
The first dispatches were encouraging. A Union victory, Lincoln hoped, might end the war. Relieved, the Lincolns went for a carriage ride.
Then, a rider caught up with them with an ominous message from the battlefield: the tide had turned. Union troops were now streaming back toward Washington in full retreat.
Soon the streets were filled with ambulances and stumbling, weary soldiers. Long, Historian: Lincoln's very surprised, not just by the defeat, but by the extent of the defeat.
I mean it was not just a battlefield defeat; it was turned into a rout. I mean they called this "the great skedaddle" as the Union army fled from the field.
Narrator: Lincoln did not go to bed that night. He lay on a sofa in his office, instead, listening to eyewitnesses describe the disaster: boys dead, more than 2, wounded or missing.
It was now clear that this war would take more than 90 days to win. The Capital had become the most heavily fortified city on earth and the sound of drums was everywhere.
A new General was turning , untrained volunteers into a mighty, disciplined force, the Army of the Potomac.
His admirers called him "the Young Napoleon. Lincoln had appointed General George Brinton McClellan, a little man with impressive credentials, a year-old West Pointer, who had studied tactics in Europe.
He promised to make short work of the Confederacy. Long, Historian: McClellan was a genius. As a man who could prepare an army to perform the task it's required to perform in wartime, McClellan has no peer.
McClellan had a relationship with his troops. There was an affection, an intimacy. McClellan regarded them as though they were his sons and he was their father.
They revered him. Narrator: As McClellan prepared his army for battle, huge crowds turned out to watch him. The General had become enormously popular.
But as Summer turned to Fall, he showed no signs of moving against the enemy. Lincoln wanted action. The North needed a victory. But McClellan refused to take his men into battle.
They weren't ready, he said. The General insisted he knew better than the President. Donald L. Miller, Historian: McClellan thought of himself as a man who was deeply superior to the President.
He was a northern aristocrat, well-schooled, well-educated, spoke a number of languages. And he saw Lincoln as a backwoods, backwater politician, crude, unlettered.
He hated his humor. He hated the style of his dress. They were exact opposites. And he would have nothing do with Lincoln.
Narrator: McClellan even refused to let the Commander-in-Chief in on his plans. Lincoln, McClellan, wrote his wife, is "nothing more than a well-meaning baboon Lincoln said only "he would gladly hold McClellan's horse if it brought victories.
There were countless parades and grand reviews, but there were no victories. McClellan kept on drilling. Lincoln worked every day, from seven in the morning till late at night.
He took no holidays, often failed to take time to eat. Mary did her best to make her distracted husband's life bearable.
She would invite friends of his to breakfast hoping they could distract him from the problems of the day. But as the war progressed, his willingness to take these moments of relaxation diminished.
And Mary really felt that she had less time with him than ever before in their marriage. In the past Lincoln could always break away from the law offices to go home and comfort Mary in one of her difficult moments, in a thunderstorm, in one of those times when she was upset.
But now his workload was of such great nature that he could not provide that comfort or calmness to her.
And she had a temperament that depended upon his calmness to bring it back into balance. Strozier, Historian: She had not calculated on the absorption of Lincoln in the affairs of state and the effect that that would have on her.
He was gone every minute of every day, and when he was there he wasn't there 'cause he was trying to run a war.
She felt alone and abandoned. Voice of Mary Lincoln, Holly Hunter : "I consider myself fortunate if at eleven o'clock, I once more find myself in my pleasant room and very especially if my tired and weary husband is there, waiting Narrator: Back in Springfield, Mary had prided herself on offering her husband political advice, but she did not know Washington, and he had little time to listen to her.
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: Their shared partnership was something that I think that had kept them together even with difficulties in their marriage.
Now the ground on which that had rested is crumbling little by little. Narrator: Mary threw herself into her campaign to refurbish the Executive Mansion.
She was almost finished now. The private rooms upstairs were all done over. The public rooms were filled with splendid new furnishings, covered in silk and damask.
In the East Room, the vast new Belgian carpet looked, one visitor wrote, "as if the ocean, in gleaming and transparent waves, were tossing roses at your feet.
But the bills had also begun to arrive. Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: What had begun as a reasonable project to make the White House a more livable, lovely place for both her husband and the country became an obsessive pursuit.
And as her expenditures got higher and higher, she needed people to protect her. He showed her how to pad expense accounts, even suggested she quietly appropriate funds meant for others for her own use.
She was desperate to keep her besieged husband in the dark, afraid of how he would react to a scandal so close to home. She not only lies about how much she's spending but feels compelled to keep doing it.
Narrator: She tearfully implored a friendly government Commissioner to ask the President for a supplemental appropriation from Congress.
Her husband would not hear of it. Voice of Lincoln David Morse : "It never can have my approval The house was furnished well enough, better than any one we ever lived in Well, I suppose Mrs.
Lincoln must bear the blame, let her bear it, I swear I won't! Narrator: He vowed to pay the extra costs himself, but the Republican Congress eventually came to his rescue, burying the surplus in the next year's appropriations bill.
And outsiders could not understand how the parents were not keeping these kids under wrap. Narrator: Robert, the oldest of the Lincoln boys was away studying at Harvard.
His two younger brothers more than made up for his absence. Lincoln called them "my blessed fellows. Jean Baker, Biographer: Can you imagine anything more exciting than having troops stationed in your living room?
Troops who let you shoot their guns off sometime? Narrator: Tad and Willy made a soldier doll from rags, named him Jack, sentenced him to be shot for falling asleep on duty, then appealed to the President for clemency.
By order of the President. Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: When it came to the upbringing of their children, they both had similar ideas because they had had unhappy childhoods themselves in very different ways.
Lincoln just let them do as they pleased. Strozier, Historian: He was infinitely tolerant of children.
He did not care at all whether children were disciplined. He didn't want children to be disciplined. Linda Levitt Turner, Biographer: They would scatter papers and climb on the furniture and make a mess of things.
Strozier, Historian: It didn't bother Lincoln at all. He just would keep writing whatever document he needed to write.
Narrator: Tad, as one of his father's Secretaries put it, was "full of merry mischief. Willy, Tad's older brother, was more serious. When Tad smashed a mirror with his ball, Willy Lincoln gave him a lecture: "That mirror does not belong to Pa," he said, "it belongs to the United States Government.
Strozier, Historian: The child Lincoln was closest to was Willy. Willy was the most sensitive, the most like him, the most poetic And he loved having him around.
He loved having him sit on his lap and, you know, read to him. There seemed to be a very deep connection between Lincoln and Willy.
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Historian: Willy always seemed, even as a young kid, wiser and older than his years.
Though the tumultuousness between the two would not end here. However, no conclusive evidence suggests that Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln married because of this pregnancy.
Mary Todd Lincoln sometimes became overcome with jealous rages. Depression also often drew her husband into periods of deep melancholy.
Both seemed to have struggled with these issues — but they struggled together. Although they suffered jointly during the worst years of the Civil War, Lincoln quite plainly loved his wife.
As president, Lincoln told a journalist :. And I, poor nobody, fell in love with her, and what is more, have never fallen out.
They were all boys. Only their first-born, Robert, survived into adulthood. Always sickly, tuberculosis likely killed him.
His death devastated both his parents. Mary Todd Lincoln could not stop crying. She refused to eat or sleep.
During a tumultuous week in February — a period of seven days that encapsulated both Ulysses S. At 13 he died, likely of typhoid fever.
She suffered from severe depression and began to seek the help of psychics to contact Willie. He would soon lose his father. On a voyage back from Europe with his mother, Tad caught a bad cold.
It developed into something more serious, and, at 18, Tad Lincoln, too, died. Like many families in the United States during the Civil War, the Todd Lincoln family found itself on different sides of the conflict.
Accusations, though, came from both the North and the South. Mary Todd did have brothers fighting on the Confederate side, after all.
Three of her half-brothers fought for the Confederates; her brother-in-law served as a Confederate general. She, like many Americans, viscerally experienced the tragedy of war.
With the war coming to a close, a life away from misery seemed, finally, possible.